Monday, March 5, 2007

Food Vocabulary - Fruits


Let's continue our food vocabulary with fruits (frutas). If you'd like to add another word, or would like to add the translations used in your country, let me know.




TEMPERATE FRUITS

Fruits of temperate climates are almost universally borne on trees or woody shrubs or lianas. They will not grow adequately in the tropics, as they need a period of cold (a chilling requirement) each year before they will flower.

Berries

In non-technical usage, berry means any small fruit that can be eaten whole and lacks objectionable seeds. The bramble fruits, compound fruits of genus Rubus (blackberries), are some of the most popular pseudo-berries:

BLACKBERRY
Rubus Rosaceae
  • Zarzamora o Mora (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
RASPBERRY
Rubus idaeus
  • Frambuesa o Frambuesa Roja (All Spanish-Speaking Countries, In Honduras is called 'mora' too)
The true berries are dominated by the family Ericaceae, many of which are hardy in the subarctic:

BLUEBERRY
Vaccinium corymbosum
  • Arándano (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
CRANBERRY
Vaccinium macrocarpon or Vaccinium Oxycoccus
  • Arándano Rojo (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
Other berries not in the Rosaceae or Ericaceae:

MULBERRY
Morus

  • Mora (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
The accessory fruits, seed organs which are not botanically berries at all:

STRAWBERRY
Fragaria
  • Fresa (Spain, Central America)
  • Frutilla (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay)


Rosaceae family

The Family Rosaceae dominates the temperate fruits, both in numbers and in importance. The pome fruits, stone fruits and brambles are fruits of plants in Rosaceae.

The pome fruits:

APPLE
Malus domestica
  • Manzana (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
MEDLAR (AKA Loquat)
Mespilus
  • Níspero (España, Mexico, Guatemala) *In Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama and Venezuela, níspero means sapodilla.
PEAR
Pyrus
  • Pera (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
QUINCE
Cydonia oblonga
  • Membrillo (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus:

APRICOT
Prunus armeniaca or Armenian plum
  • Albaricoque (Spain, Guatemala)
  • Damasco (Argentina)
  • Chabacano (Mexico)
  • Alberge (Aragón, La Rioja)
CHERRY

    SWEET CHERRY (AKA Wild Cherry)
    Prunus Avium
  • Cereza (Central America)
  • Capulín (Honduras, El Salvador)
  • Picota, Cerezo común, bravío, de monte

  • SOUR CHERRY (AKA Morello Cherry)
    Prunus Cerasus
  • Guinda, Cereza, Cereza ácida (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
NECTARINE
Prunus persica
  • Nectarina o Pelón
PEACH
Prunus persica
  • Durazno (Argentina, Central America)
  • Melocotón (España, Guatemala)
PLUM (Dried plum)
Prunus domestica
  • Ciruela (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
  • Guindón

  • PRUNE
    • Ciruela, Guindón





TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL FRUITS

A tropical fruit one that typically grows in warm climates, or equatorial areas.

ANONA
Annona
    ILAMA
    Annona diversifolia
    • Anona or Anona Blanca (Central America)

    SWEETSOP (AKA Sweetsop, Sugar apple)
    Annona squamosa
    • Anona or Anona Blanca (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua)
    • Anón (Bolivia, Cuba, Panama)
    • Anón de azucar, Anón domestico, Mocuyo (Colombia)
    • Anona de castilla (El Salvador)
    • Anona de Guatemala (Nicaragua)

    CHERIMOYA
    Annona cherimola
    • Chirimoya

    SOURSOP
    Annona muricata
    • Guanábana (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
    • Guanaba (El Salvador, Honduras)

    CUSTARD APPLE (AKA Bullock's heart or bull's heart)
    Annona reticulata
    • Mamón o Corazón
    • Anona de monte (Nicaragua)
BANANA
Musa paradisiaca
  • Banano (Latin America)
  • Plátano (Spain) *In other countries, plátano means plantain.
BREADFRUIT
Artocarpus altilis
  • Fruta de Pan (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
  • Panapén (Puerto Rico)
  • Masapán (Honduras)
CARAMBOLA (AKA Star Fruit)
Averrhoa carambola
  • Carambola (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
CASHEW
Anacardium occidentale
  • Jocote Marañón (Guatemala)
  • Marañon (Central America and Cuba)
  • Merey (Colombia, Puerto Rico, Venezuela)
  • Cajuil (República Dominicana)
  • Anacardo (Spain)
COCONUT
Cocos nucifera
  • Coco (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
GRANADILLA (AKA Sweet Granadilla)
Passiflora ligularis
  • Granadilla (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
GUAVA
Psidium
  • Guayaba (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
MAMEY (OR MAMEE) SAPOTE (AKA Sapota, Marmalade Plum)
Pouteria sapota
  • Zapote (Centroamérica)
  • Mamey de tierra (Panama)
MAMEY (OR MAMEE) APPLE (AKA Souh American or Santo Domingo Apricot)
Mammea americana
  • Mamey (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
  • Mamey amarillo
  • Mamey de Cartagena (Panama)
  • Mamey de Guacayarima
  • Mamey de Santo Domingo
MANGO
Mangifera
  • Mango (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
NANCE
Byrsonima crassifolia
  • Nance (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
PAPAYA (AKA Tree melon)
Carica papaya
  • Papaya (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
  • Fruta bomba, lechosa (Venezuela, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and the Dominican Republic)
  • Mamón
PASSION FRUIT (AKA Lilikoi)
Passiflora edulis
  • Maracuyá (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
PINEAPPLE
Ananas comosus
  • Piña (España, Guatemala)
  • Ananá(s) (Argentina)
PITAYA (OR PITAHAYA), DRAGON FRUIT, STRAWBERRY PEAR
Hylocereus
  • Pitahaya (Spain)
  • Pitaya (Mexico, Guatemala)
PLANTAIN
Another variety of Musa paradisiaca
  • Plátano (Latin America) *In Spain, plátano means banana
POMEGRANATE
Punica granatum
  • Granada (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
SAPODILLA
Manilkara zapota
  • Chico Zapote (Guatemala, México)
  • Níspero (Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Venezuela) *In Spain and other countries, níspero means medlar.
  • Zapotillo (Honduras)
SPANISH PLUM and JOCOTE
Spondias mombin / Spondias purpurea
  • Jocote (Central America and Mexico)
  • Jobo (Panama)
STAR APPLE
Chrysophyllum cainito
  • Caimito (Central America, Colombia and Venezuela)
TAMARIND
Tamarindus indica
  • Tamarindo


Citrus Fruits

GRAPEFRUIT
Citrus paradisi
  • Pomelo (Spain, Argentina)
  • Toronja (Central America)
  • Naranjela (Nicaragua)

LEMON
Citrus x limon
  • Limón (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)

LIME (AKA Key Lime)
Citrus aurantifolia
  • Lima (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)

MANDARIN AND TANGERINE
Citrus reticulata
Varieties: Mandarin orange, Clementine
  • Mandarina (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)

ORANGE
Citrus sinensis, syn. Citrus aurantium var. dulcis
  • Naranja (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)

POMELO (AKA Chinese grapefruit)
Citrus maxima, syn. Citrus grandis
  • Pampelmusa o cimboa





OTHERS



Herbaceous annuals fruits

Some exceptions to the statement that temperate fruits grow on woody perennials are:

MELON (AKA Cantaloupe)
Cucumis melo
  • Melón (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
WATERMELON
Citrullus lanatus
  • Sandía (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
PUMPKIN
Cucurbita
  • Calabaza (Spain and Central America)
  • Auyama (Colombia, Venezuela)
  • Zapallo (Argentina)
  • Ayote (Honduras)


Mediterranean Fruits

Fruits in this category are not hardy to extreme cold, as the preceding temperate fruits are, yet tolerate some frost and may have a modest chilling requirement. Notable among these are natives of the Mediterranean:

GRAPE
Vitis
  • Uva (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)

  • RAISIN (Dried grape)
    • Pasa (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
DATE
Phoenix dactylifera
  • Dátil (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
FIG
Ficus
  • Higo (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)


Fruits of Asian origin

Some fruits native to Asia.

KIWI (AKA Kiwifruit)
Actinidia deliciosa
  • Kiwi (All Spanish-Speaking Countries)
PERSIMMON (KAKI)
Diospyros kaki
  • Caqui (Argentina)
  • Palosanto (Spain)
  • Persimonio o Pérsimon



For more food-related vocabulary, check these other posts:
Vegetables| Dairy Products | Seasonings | Cereals, Beans, Nuts and other Seeds | Meat (Coming soon!)


Updated article. April 12th. 2007.

This list was prepared by the members of the Spanish-English interchange group. There are people from Latin America, Spain, the US and the UK. Thanks guys!

3 comments:

Anonymous said...

Tengo dos frutas más que no aparecen en la lista:
kiwano y calamanci

Andrés Mouat said...

¡Felicidades por su lista de frutas! Sin embargo, contiene varias sobre-generalizaciones, omisiones y errores.

En México, no se dice "banano", sino "plátano", y "plantain" es "plátano macho". En Puerto Rico "banana" es "guineo". En México nunca dicen "maracuyá" al "passionfruit", sino "granadilla". "Raisins" son "uvas pasas", y no "pasas" simplemente. "Pitaya" también se escribe "pitahaya" en México. "Toronja" no se restringe a América Central, sino que también se usa en México.

Existe una confusión en cuanto al "cherry". Mencionan "sour cherry" (prunus cerasus) y "sweet cherry" (prunus avium), ambos procedentes de Europa y Asia, pero no mencionan el "choke cherry" o "bird cherry" (prunus virginiana), nativo de las Américas. En México y otros países, esta fruta se llama "capulín".

No hay nada sobre "quince" (cydonia oblonga), en español "membrillo".

Finalmente, "calamansi" o "kalamansi" (palabra tagalog) no se debe deletrear "calamanci"

Silvia Jacinto said...

Eating is really one of my hobby i mean part of my life and cooking is my passion. I also love going to a place and at the same time taste their delicious and most wanted food.I want to taste something that is new to my palate. Thanks for sharing your article with us.

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